Pioneers of the idea from the mid 1960s would be amazed. Although there had been various attempts to launch bike-sharing programs throughout the 20th century, it wasn’t until the “third wave” of bike sharing, in the late 1990s, that the concept really took off. Since then, bike-share programs have spread throughout cities, principally in Europe, but also in North America and Asia. They are usually run publicly or via public-private partnerships (PPPs). But do they pay for themselves?
The report examines both the economic performance of 13 bike-sharing initiatives in Europe, and new potential challenges arriving on the scene.
To access the full report, visit the IESE Insight website.